In this post we’ll look at the supplements Rhonda takes currently.
She adjusts her supplements over time, and this post is kept continually updated. If interested, you can view the change log here.
It’s important to note that Rhonda has no affiliation with any of the brands mentioned – instead she uses them because her research, or her colleagues research, suggest they are good.
Rhonda’s Morning Supplements
- Multivitamin – alternating monthly between 2 types
- Fish Oil – 3 grams of Omega-3s – higher in EPA
- Vitamin D – 5,000 IU per day in winter, 2,000 IU in summer
- Vitamin K – 50 mcg of K1 + 15 mcg of K2 MK-7
- Calcium – 200 mg – taken due to reducing dairy intake
- Lutein & Zeaxanthin – for eye health
- Ubiquinol – 200 mg
- Cocoa Extract – 2 capsules
- Sulforaphane – 20 mg of free-form sulforaphane
Rhonda’s Evening Supplements
- Fish Oil – An additional 3 grams of Omega-3s – higher in DHA
- Magnesium – Magnesium Citrate / Malate mix – 135 mg
- Vitamin C – 600 mg
- Luteolin – 165 mg
- Melatonin – 12 mg – high dose due to night terrors
Supplements Rhonda Uses Intermittently:
- PQQ – may help cognitive function and memory
- Curcumin Phytosome – uses as a replacement for light painkillers
- Choline – important for general health, may top up if diet is lacking
- Probiotics – taken rarely, only after drinking alcohol or (in theory) post-antibiotics
- Collagen Powder – for improved joint, skin and hair health
- Omega-3 Phospholipids – a different, beneficial form of omega-3s
- Nootropics – details on Rhonda’s nootropic drink
Not Currently Taking
- This section covers supplements Rhonda has taken previously (then stopped), and popular supplements she has researched. Specifically Nicotinamide Riboside, Resveratrol, Metformin and Athletic Greens.
Rhonda’s Pregnancy, Breastfeeding & Toddler Supplements
- See this separate post for the details on what Rhonda took during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
- See this separate post for the details on what Rhonda gave her growing toddler.
Table of Contents
- 1 Rhonda’s Morning Supplements
- 1.1 Multivitamin
- 1.2 Omega-3 Fish Oil
- 1.3 Vitamin D
- 1.4 Vitamin K
- 1.5 Calcium
- 1.6 Lutein & Zeaxanthin
- 1.7 Ubiquinol
- 1.8 Cocoa Extract
- 1.9 Sulforaphane
- 2 Rhonda’s Evening Supplements
- 3 Supplements Rhonda Uses Intermittently
- 4 Not Currently Taking
- 5 Rhonda’s Pregnancy, Breastfeeding & Toddler Supplements
- 6 Rhonda’s Method for Choosing Supplement Brands
- 7 Closing Remarks
- 8 Post Change Log
- 9 References
Rhonda’s Morning Supplements
This section covers the supplements Rhonda takes in the morning.
In Rhonda’s July 2022 Q&A she mentioned that she is alternating monthly between Pure Encapsulations ONE and Thorne – Basic Nutrients 2/Day.
Ie – she takes one each day for a month, then switches to the other one for a month.
Below we’ll look at the micronutrient contents of the two multivitamins Rhonda alternates between:
|Micronutrient Name||Pure Encapsulations ONE||Thorne Basic Nutrients||NIH RDA for Adults (19-50)|
|Amount per serving (1 pill)||Amount per serving (2 pills)||Male/Female|
|Vitamin A||1, 125 mcg||450 mcg||900 / 700 mcg RAE|
|Vitamin B1||3 mg||50 mg||1.2 / 1.1 mg|
|Vitamin B2||3 mg||12 mg||1.3 / 1.1 mg|
|Vitamin B3||20 mg||80 mg||16 / 14 mg|
|Vitamin B5||10 mg||45 mg||5 / 5 mg|
|Vitamin B6||4 mg||20 mg||1.3 / 1.3 mg|
|Vitamin B12||500 mcg||600 mcg||2.4 / 2.4 mcg|
|Vitamin C||180 mg||250 mg||90 / 75 mg|
|Vitamin D3||2,000 IU (50 mcg)||2,000 IU (50 mcg)||15 / 15 mcg|
|Vitamin E||20 mg||16.5 mg||15 / 15 mg|
|Vitamin K1||None||200 mcg||120 / 90 mcg|
|Vitamin K2||None||200 mcg (MK-4)||K1 & K2 above|
|Folate||667 mcg||667 mcg||400 / 400 mcg|
|Zinc||25 mg||15 mg||11 / 8 mg|
|Magnesium||None||20 mg||420 / 320 mg|
|Selenium||70 mcg||200 mcg||55 / 55 mcg|
|Manganese||2 mg||3 mg||2.3 / 1.8 mg|
|Molybdenum||75 mcg||None||45 / 45 mcg|
|Chromium||200 mcg||400 mcg||35 / 25 mcg|
|Copper||None||750 mcg||900 / 900 mcg|
|Iodine||150 mcg||75 mcg||150 / 150 mcg|
|Biotin||300 mcg||500 mcg||30 / 30 mcg|
|Calcium||None||52 mg||1000 / 1000 mg|
|Choline||10 mg||None||550 / 425 mg|
|Boron||1 mg||2 mg||No RDA|
|Lutein||3 mg||140 mcg||No RDA|
|Coenzyme Q10||50 mg||None||No RDA|
|Alpha Lipoic Acid||50 mg||None||No RDA|
|Inositol||25 mg||None||No RDA|
|Zeaxanthin||500 mcg||None||No RDA|
|Lycopene||500 mcg||None||No RDA|
|Gamma Tocopherol||None||24 mg||No RDA|
We can see a few things, namely:
- For many of the vitamins and minerals they both contain, such as all the B vitamins, Thorne’s supplement contains higher daily doses. Of course, more isn’t always better.
- ONE contains more non-provitamin A carotenoids; lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene. Thorne’s contains much less lutein and no zeaxanthin or lycopene.
- ONE contains CoQ10, Alpha lipoic acid, choline, inositol and molybdenum, whilst Thorne’s does not. Of those, choline and molybdenum are essential micronutrients.
- Thorne contains magnesium, copper, calcium and gamma tocopherol, whilst ONE does not. Due to the amount of magnesium needed in supplements, it isn’t really practical for multivitamins to cover it. It needs a separate supplement, so omitting magnesium is understandable. Many people avoid copper supplements as it’s already in our diet in small amounts (such as in water via copper pipes) and too much isn’t good. Calcium is important, but is better sourced from the diet, as calcium supplements have been associated with cardiovascular disease1Associations of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation with myocardial infarction and stroke risk and overall cardiovascular mortality in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC-Heidelberg) | Li et al. | 2012 | BMJ Heart2Calcium Intake From Diet and Supplements and the Risk of Coronary Artery Calcification and its Progression Among Older Adults: 10‐Year Follow‐up of the Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) | Anderson et al. 2016 | JAMA.
It’s worth noting that the US version of ONE is formulated slightly differently to the UK version. See here for the differences.
Whilst Rhonda’s goal is to get her micronutrients from her diet, taking a multivitamin avoids risk of a short fall if her diet doesn’t provide 100% of needs.
Micronutrients, a subset of which are referred to as vitamins and minerals, are regarded as essential if experiments show that humans get sick in their absence. There are over 40 (!) different essential micronutrients we need to consume, in order to stay healthy.
Rhonda’s early mentor, Bruce Ames, researched what happens when our bodies have insufficient levels of micronutrients, and found that our bodies prioritize the scarce nutrients for functions related to survival and reproduction. De-prioritizing other functions, such as those that could aid in longevity.
Omega-3 Fish Oil
Rhonda currently takes an omega-3 supplement called Norwegian PURE-3, which is touted as a high quality fish oil with low levels of oxidation.
It comes in 2 versions; high DHA and high EPA.
Rhonda currently takes between 6 grams daily. 3 grams of their high EPA product in the morning and 3 grams of their high EPA product in the evening. If she misses a dose in the morning then she will typically double up in the evening.
She has mentioned previously that this high dosing of omega-3s is somewhat experimental – as studies on the benefits usually use lower daily dosages.
Unfortunately this particular product she uses, Norwegian PURE-3, has had inventory issues for some time and is unavailable for order.
Norwegian Pure-3 Alternative?
Rhonda’s alternative suggestion is to check the IFOS site (International Fish Oil Standards), and use their batch testing of oxidation and heavy metal levels to guide your product choice.
She has also mentioned an alternative product called Metagenics OmegaGenics. However, they have since stopped doing IFOS testing for their product (link), so it’s not possible to check batches for their oxidation levels or heavy metal content.
Below is a list of fish oils that have both low oxidation and heavy metal levels, as measured by the IFOS testing.
||Total Oxidation*||Heavy Metals*
|Viva Naturals Triple Strength||$22 with coupon||Unflavored||90 soft gels||773 / 269 mg||7.39||Passed
|Carlson Maximum Omega 2000||$29||Lemon Flavor||60 soft gels||668 / 284 mg||5.04||Passed||Link|
|Barlean's Ideal Omega-3||$48||Orange||60 soft gels||762 / 259 mg||3.12
For a bigger version of this table with more products and details, see this spreadsheet. It also includes a section for brands specific to UK & Canada.
After trying a number of fish oil supplements, and noticing I prefer them without added flavoring, I’m personally using Viva Naturals Triple Strength. This coupon code gives 10% off orders, in case that’s of use.
– – –
Whilst supplementing omega-3s is a daily occurrence for Rhonda, she also adds salmon roe caviar a few times per week. It contains a phospholipid form of omega-3 that has additional benefits (read more below).
Vegetarian / Vegan Fish Oil Alternatives?
Rhonda personally opts to get her omega-3s from fish oil, due to its high levels of EPA & DHA per gram.
However, when asked on Joe Rogan’s podcast how vegetarians can supplement EPA & DHA, she believed algae oil is the optimal source.
In part, this is because fish don’t actually produce omega-3s, instead they get them from the plankton and algae in their diet – so by consuming algae you’re going direct to the source3Omega-3: A Link between Global Climate Change and Human Health – Jing X. Kang | 2011 | Biotechnology Advances.
In a non supplemented vegetarian/vegan diet, the primary source of omega-3 fatty acids comes from alpha linolenic acid (ALA), which is found in various plants (particularly flaxseed).
However, the omega-3s EPA & DHA are also important to humans, so relying on ALA solely has a few issues:
- ALA is weakly converted to EPA – Research estimates between 0.2% to 6% of ALA is converted to EPA4Metabolism of α-linolenic acid in humans – G.C. Burdge | (see section 7.2 of paper) | 2006 | Journal: PLEFA. This aligns with a presentation by Dr Bill Harris, the omega-3 expert Rhonda interviewed, where he estimates less than 5% of ALA is converted to EPA (link).
- ALA barely converts to DHA – The same research paper above estimates 0.05% or less of ALA is converted to DHA.5Metabolism of α-linolenic acid in humans – G.C. Burdge | (see section 7.2 of paper) | 2006 | Journal: PLEFA. In Dr Bill Harris’ presentation above, he similarly estimates less than 0.1% of ALA is converted to DHA.
- This aligns with research showing that vegetarians and vegans have lower levels of EPA & DHA compared to those who eat fish6Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement – Sarter et al. | 2014 | Clinical Nutrition.
The good news is that research shows algae based omega-3s will raise EPA & DHA levels in vegans, even at relatively low dose7Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement – Sarter et al. | 2014 | Clinical Nutrition. A study showed their omega-3 index score went from 3.1 to 4.8 after 4 months of taking 172mg DHA & 82mg of EPA per day.
Below are a couple of algae based omega-3s, so you can see their cost per gram of EPA & DHAs:
|Source Naturals - Non-Fish Omega-3s||$15||30 soft gels||Sorbitol sweetener||$5.44 / $2.72|
|Sun Warrior - Algae-Based Omega-3||$20||60 soft gels||Maltitol sweetener||$5.89 / $1.33|
|Deva - Vegan Omega-3||$32||60 soft gels||Vegetable glycerin||$3.55 / $1.77|
The Omega-3 Index Test
^ Rhonda recently interviewed Omega-3 expert Dr Bill Harris (link)
Rhonda notes in her recent Joe Rogan interview (#1701) she’s a proponent of what’s called the “omega-3 index test”. Mentioning that higher levels are associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality8Blood n-3 fatty acid levels and total and cause-specific mortality from 17 prospective studies – Harris et al. | 2021 | Nature Communications.
In essence, it measures the omega-3 fatty acids in your red blood cells, expressed as a percentage of the total fatty acids. With a score of 8% or greater being correlated with better health outcomes9The Omega-3 Index: Clinical Utility for Therapeutic Intervention | William Harris | 2010 | Current Cardiology Reports.
The company that make this test, OmegaQuant, offer it as an at home “dried blood spot” test. Fortunately it doesn’t require much blood, just single drop onto a piece of card, which you then post back. OmegaQuant was founded by Bill Harris who Rhonda interviewed recently. The test comes in 3 versions:
- Omega-3 Index Basic Test ($49) – which provides the omega-3 index score only
- Omega-3 Index Plus Test ($74) – which provides the index score + trans fat index, omega-6 to omega-3 ratio & AA:EPA ratio (inflammation marker)
- Omega-3 Index Complete Test ($99) – which provides everything in the Plus test, and then in addition includes a trans fat index & individual fatty acid levels
For 10% off the tests, use this OmegaQuant coupon code.
Fish Oil No Longer Taken
It’s worth clarifying which fish oil supplements Rhonda isn’t taking anymore – for avoidance of confusion. She no longer takes:
- Nordic Naturals – ProOmega 2000 – she took this up until around 2017 (see last tweet mentioning). Not to be confused with the supplement she recently mentioned – Carlson Maximum Omega 2000. Since she stopped with Nordic Naturals, she has been taking NPure-3.
- Nordic Naturals – Omega-3 Phospholipids – she took this up until around 2016 (see last tweet mentioning). However, she has since moved to consuming the salmon roe caviar mentioned above.
- Krill Oil – prior to taking the Omega-3 phospholipids supplement by Nordic Naturals, she was taking krill oil. However, she replaced both with salmon roe caviar – and no longer takes krill oil.
Rhonda mentioned in her July 2022 Q&A that she takes a total of 2,000 IU per day of vitamin D3 in the Summer and 5,000 IU in the winter. She noted that this is in addition to the 2,000 IU in her multivitamin.
Note that she lives in San Diego, which is close to the equator and a sunny place in general.
She co-ordinates her supplementation with Vitamin D blood testing, so that she stays between 40 and 60 ng/ml, generally hovering around 50 ng/ml.
You can measure your vitamin D levels via a blood draw, or by using an at home finger-prick blood test.
Vitamin D is essential to the human body and has a direct effect on the expression of more than 1,000 genes in most of our cells10Vitamin D: A Micronutrient Regulating Genes – Carsten Carlberg | 2019 | Current Pharmaceutical Design.
Whereas we can get adequate amounts of most micro nutrients through our diet, it’s hard to do that with vitamin D. Instead our bodies rely upon UV-B light from the sun, which we don’t always get enough of, making supplementation important.
Vitamin D is fat soluble (unlike, for instance, vitamin C), which means the body *can* store it, and your vitamin D levels *can* get too high. Therefore it’s important to use blood testing to ensure you’re staying within the healthy range.
Rhonda’s Vitamin D Dosage:
- Approximately 5,000 IU per day in winter, and 2,000 IU in summer
- In addition to the 2,000 IU per day in her multivitamin
How Rhonda gets her Vitamin D
- Rhonda’s multivitamins contain 2,000 IU per day.
- She currently uses a blend of vitamin D3, vitamin K1 and calcium. It’s called Pure Encapsulations Calcium K/D and each serving of 2 capsules contains 1,000 IU of vitamin D3. However, she only takes 1 capsule per day, so 500 IU.
- Presumably she then tops up using vitamin D capsules.
Examples of stand-alone vitamin D supplements include:
- Thorne 1,000 IU capsules and 5,000 IU capsules
- Life Extension 1,000 IU capsules and 5,000 IU capsules.
Rhonda currently supplements vitamin K on the basis that it’s an “insurance policy”, in case she doesn’t get enough K from vegetables.
For more background on the interplay between vitamin K1 and K2, Rhonda describes it as follows…
Vitamin K is an essential micronutrient, that’s plays a crucial role in the ability to form blood clots, and to transport calcium around the body.
It comes in 2 different forms, vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone).
Vitamin K1 is the most abundant in a western diet, primarily found in leafy green vegetables. Vitamin K2 on the other hand is found in fermented foods, which are less common in a western diet. A source that’s particularly high in K2 are fermented soya beans, also known as “natto” in Japan.
Vitamin K1, once absorbed by the body, is prioritized for use in the liver to produce proteins essential for blood clotting. When that task is satisfied, then the level of K1 increases in the blood, and helps to transport calcium for use around the body.
Unfortunately, many people are low in vitamin K1, and therefore may have inadequate levels of K1 to support adequate calcium transport. The NHANES 2011-2012 study found only 57% of men and 37.5% of women (N = 4,306) met the “adequate intake” of K111Vegetables and Mixed Dishes Are Top Contributors to Phylloquinone Intake in US Adults: Data from the 2011-2012 NHANES – Harshman et al. (2017). This could lead to increased cardiovascular risk as a result12Circulating uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein, a marker of vitamin K status, as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease – van den Heuvel et al. (2014), although more research needed.
So where does the vitamin K2 supplementation come in?
Whilst vitamin K1 is prioritized for use in the liver, vitamin K2 appears to be prioritized for use in the periphery, which will support calcium transport13The relationship between vitamin K and peripheral arterial disease – Vissers et al. (2016).
In terms of supplementing K2 (menaquinone), there are two key forms; MK4 & MK7. MK7 has a longer half-life, but MK4 is more studied.
How Rhonda gets her vitamin K:
- Most recently Rhonda is taking a supplement called called Pure Encapsulations Calcium K/D, of which she takes 1 pill daily. Each pill contains 50 mcg of vitamin K1.
- Previously she had supplemented it individually, via Life Extension’s K2 MK-7 45mcg product.
Rhonda’s Dosage: ~50 mcg / daily
As many are already aware, calcium is crucial to healthy bones, but also regulates muscle contraction, nerve conduction, blood clotting and more.
Previously, Rhonda did not supplement calcium, however she has started cutting down on dairy in her diet, which is high in calcium, and so has decided to add additional calcium separately.
The supplement she uses, Pure Encapsulations Calcium K/D, has 200 mg of calcium per pill, which is what she takes daily.
It’s also worth noting that her Luteolin supplement, discussed below, contains a calcium ascorbate blend of vitamin C that results in 68 mg of additional vitamin C.
Rhonda’s Dosage: 200 mg / daily
Lutein & Zeaxanthin
Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow and orange pigments, also known as carotenoids, that are found in fruit and vegetables. Lutein specifically is also found in egg yolks and animal fats.
They’re particularly of interest in eye health, because they’re found in the eye lens and macular region of the retina.
Research suggests that these compounds may have a beneficial effect in delaying the progression of eye diseases such as late age-related macular degeneration and cataracts14Lutein and Zeaxanthin and Their Roles in Age-Related Macular Degeneration – Mrowicka et al. | 2022 | Nutrients15Lutein and Zeaxanthin Supplementation and Association With Visual Function in Age-Related Macular Degeneration – Liu et al. | 2015 | Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.
Rhonda supplements 10 mg of Lutein and 2 mg of Zeaxanthin daily, via a product called Pure Encapsulations Lutein & Zeaxanthin.
Her ONE multivitamin already contains 3 mg of Lutein and 0.5 mg of Zeaxanthin. Whereas the Thorne multivitamin contains 140 mcg of Lutein and zero Zeaxanthin.
When it comes to vitamins and minerals, there are established guidelines for daily consumption, however with other compounds the guidelines are less established.
This paper suggests there is strong evidence that up to 20 mg / day of Lutein is safe16Dietary guidance for lutein: consideration for intake recommendations is scientifically supported – Ranard et al. | 2017 | European Journal of Nutrition.
For Zeaxanthin, according to this paper17Zeaxanthin: Review of Toxicological Data and Acceptable Daily Intake – James Edwards | 2016 | Journal of Ophthalmology, the EU put an upper use level of 2 mg / day. However, it suggests that higher intakes are safe, for example with a human intervention study using 20 mg / day of Zeaxanthin, for 6 months, showing no adverse affects.
Rhonda’s Dosage: 10 mg Lutein, 2 mg Zeaxanthin
You may already be familiar with a supplement called CoenzymeQ10.
CoQ10 comes in two common forms; ubiquinone (the oxidized form) and ubiquinol (the reduced form). The version Rhonda’s taking (ubiquinol) is proposed to be more bio-available than ubiquinone18Increased Bioavailability of Ubiquinol Compared to Ubiquinone – Aoki et al. (2014).
She describes ubiquinol as playing an important role in mitochondrial energy production.
Whilst it’s found naturally in our diets, Rhonda said in her Jan 2023 Q&A she is supplementing an additional 200mg per day.
She’s specifically using Pure Encapsulations – Ubiquinol-QH 200mg. It is noticeably expensive, even for ubiquinol. Apparently it uses “Kaneka” brand ubiquinol, which is also used by NOW Ubiquinol 200 mg and Jarrow Ubiquinol 200 mg – who charge less for it.
Rhonda’s Dosage: 200 mg / daily
As of Rhonda’s January 2023 Q&A she is still takin CocoaVia.
Specifically their Cardio Health version, which she takes in the morning due to it containing a small amount of caffeine (for 20% off, you can use this coupon code).
Rhonda cites 3 potential benefits of cocoa flavanols:
- Enhanced circulation
- Improved cognitive function
- Improvements to skin (decreased wrinkles and increased skin elasticity)
See the studies Rhonda mentions in regard to enhanced circulation:
- Dark chocolate (85% cocoa), but not milk chocolate (35% cocoa), improved walking ability in elderly patients with peripheral artery disease19Dark Chocolate Acutely Improves Walking Autonomy in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease – Violi et al. (2014).
- Increased endurance performance in young male cyclists who consumed dark chocolate – showing a performance increase of 17% vs consuming white chocolate20Dark chocolate supplementation reduces the oxygen cost of moderate intensity cycling – Patel et al. (2015).
- Cocoa consumption decreased blood pressure in healthy individuals, in a dose dependent manner21Cocoa consumption dose-dependently improves flow-mediated dilation and arterial stiffness decreasing blood pressure in healthy individuals – Claudio et al. (2015).
Then studies in regards to enhanced cognition:
- Increased cognition in young adults, measured via a cognitively demanding test22The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people – Francis et al (2006)
- Protection from cognitive decline in the elderly23Benefits in cognitive function, blood pressure, and insulin resistance through cocoa flavanol consumption in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) study – Desideri et al. (2012).
Then lastly, a Korean study showed 320mg of cocoa daily reduced wrinkles and increased skin elasticity (measured after 24 weeks)24Cocoa Flavanol Supplementation Influences Skin Conditions of Photo-Aged Women: A 24-Week Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial – Chung et al. (2015).
Of course, it’s worth noting that the amount of cocoa in regular chocolate is low – so you want to be consuming high cacao content products to receive these benefits. The studies above specifically reference the cocoa flavanol content as a quantitative marker, and CocoaVia contains 500mg of cocoa flavanols per serving.
In an Instagram post (link) Rhonda mentions studies have shown that many cocoa products have high levels of cadmium and lead25Cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and chocolate products in the US Market – Abt et al (2017). That’s a blow for dark chocolate fans (myself included) who hadn’t considered heavy metal consumption might be a risk. She goes on to say that in this Consumer Lab report, the CocoaVia brand was shown to have almost undetectable levels of cadmium and lead – making it a safe option, and a key reason she opted for it.
It’s perhaps worth noting that CocoaVia also have a product called Memory+ (in a blue bottle).
It’s a higher dose per serving (750mg vs 500mg), which is based off clinical studies26Cocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study—a randomized controlled trial – Mastroiacovo et al. (2014)27Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults – Brickman et al. (2014) that showed this dose improves word recall and led to faster spatial memory versus the placebo.
Interestingly, at price per gram of flavanols, it also works out cheaper than the original version ($2.22/gram vs $3.00/gram).
Rhonda’s Dosage: 2 capsules per day, in the morning
Rhonda’s a big proponent of the benefits of sulforpahane and has talked about it a lot.
For extensive details, see this separate post where we look at what sulforaphane is, why it’s important, and the various forms Rhonda consumes it in, including self-grown broccoli sprouts.
Currently Rhonda is consuming sulforaphane in 2 forms; Broq tablets and moringa powder. Note: since having her son she has less time for growing broccoli sprouts.
Rhonda currently takes a sulforaphane supplement called BROQ.
It contains 10mg of free-form stabilized sulforpahane per tablet.
This has greater bio-availability than sulforaphane glucosinolate, which is used in a lot of sulforaphane supplements, including Avmacol.
Prior to Broq existing Rhonda was taking Prostaphane, which had to be shipped from France. Broq is manufactured by the same company as Prostaphane, for the US market.
Rhonda’s Dosage: 2 tablets (20 mg total) of BROQ each morning, after a meal. Avoid taking on an empty stomach.
Rhonda added Moringa powder to her diet after research from Jed Fahey at Johns Hopkins University.
Moringa is derived from the leaves of the Drumstick Tree, which are harvested, dried and then powdered.
It contains an isothiocynate with very similar properties to sulforaphane, called Moringin.
In Jed’s studies on Moringa, participants consumed it as a cold-brewed tea. This can be made by:
- Adding moringa powder to room temperature water at ratio of 1:100 powder to water
- Leaving to stand for at least 10 minutes prior to drinking
- The reason for avoiding hot water is because the myrocinase enzyme in moringa is sensitive to heat, and it’s crucial to preserve it.
In terms of which Moringa to use, Jed’s studies used Kuli Kuli Moringa (15% off coupon code here). He notes in their FAQs that excessive sunlight or heat after harvest will rapidly degrade some of the phytochemicals and vitamins of interest in the leaves – so it’s worth caution when sourcing.
As mentioned above, for more details on Rhonda’s use of sulforaphane see this separate post.
Rhonda’s Evening Supplements
So far we’ve discussed Rhonda’s morning supplements. In this next section we’ll look at the supplements Rhonda takes in the evenings.
Fish Oil (Evening)
Rhonda takes an additional 3 grams of fish oil in the evening, for a total of 6 grams.
See the above section for more details on Rhonda’s fish oil supplementation (no point duplicating it).
Rhonda notes that her multivitamin doesn’t contain Magnesium, therefore she adds it separately.
In her January 2023 Q&A she notes taking 135 mg of magnesium daily.
135 mg is only around 38% of the NIH RDA (350 mg), as she aims to get the majority of magnesium from her diet.
However, for example with her mother, who doesn’t eat as many green vegetables, she encourages a larger supplemental dose.
The specific product she notes using is called Thorne Citramate.
Rhonda describes getting adequate magnesium as a “long term investment”.
Magnesium is a co-factor for over 300 enzymes in the body. Many of those enzymes have to do with energy production and energy utilization. So it makes sense you’d want it for preventing muscle cramps and things like that. But, Rhonda says, it’s also important for repairing damage to the body, because magnesium is very important for DNA repair enzymes. That’s not something that’s going to show up acutely like a muscle cramp. DNA damage is something you’ll never know about, so making sure you get enough magnesium is extremely important for the ageing process.
Rhonda likes to emphasize that leafy green vegetables are a particularly good source of magnesium. This is because magnesium composes part of the chlorophyll molecule, the green pigment in plants that helps absorb light. So, if you see leafy green vegetables, you know you’ll be able to get some of the bound-up magnesium from it. Approximately 1/2 the US population are thought to be deficient in magnesium28Suboptimal magnesium status in the United States: are the health consequences underestimated? – Rosanoff et al. (2012)
Other foods high in magnesium include avocados, almonds, oats and peanut butter (see full list here).
Rhonda’s Dosage: 135 mg / daily
In her May 2022 interview with Andrew Huberman, she mentioned occasionally taking a different magnesium product at night before bed, called Magnesi-Om (20% off coupon code here).
It’s a blend of magnesium gluconate, magnesium acetyl taurinate and magnesium citrate, coupled with l-theanine. There’s a little monk fruit too, which sweetens the mixture.
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient, well known for its antioxidant properties.
Rhonda has a comprehensive topic page which covers many details on vitamin C.
She currently takes it via a supplement called Pure Encapsulations – Ester C, which includes 619 mg per 1 capsule serving. Oddly, the 180 capsule product seems to be called Ester C, and the 90 capsule product; Ester C – but they contain the same ingredients.
In addition, the supplement also has 50 mg of quercetin and 100 mg of rutin – both flavonoids with potential health benefits.
Luteolin is a type of flavonoid found in small quantities in fruits and vegetables.
Research in cell lines (in-vitro) and animal models suggests it may:
- Have cardiovascular protective effects29Luteolin: A Flavonoid that Has Multiple Cardio-Protective Effects and Its Molecular Mechanisms – Luo et al. | 2017 | Frontiers in Pharmacology.
- Decrease inflammation30Luteolin suppresses inflammation-associated gene expression by blocking NF-κB and AP-1 activation pathway in mouse alveolar macrophages – Chen et al | 2007 .
- Promote autophagy, which is the cleaning up of cellular junk31Luteolin Promotes Cell Apoptosis by Inducing Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Zhang et al. | 2017 | Cellular Physiology & Biochemistry
Rhonda is currently using a product called Autophagy Renew by Life Extension, which provides 165mg of Luteolin per capsule.
Rhonda’s Dosage: 165 mg
Melatonin is a hormone produced by our bodies to regulate the sleep-wake cycle. We produce melatonin as the sun sets and night sets in, and we reduce production as the sun rises and our body preps for wakefulness.
Rhonda suggests that melatonin can be useful as we age (particularly for those 50+), because over time our natural production decreases.
The aspect of melatonin production decreasing with age is important (see this study for more discussion). We know that good sleep is absolutely crucial to overall health, so if we can supplement melatonin and measure a noticeable positive impact on sleep, that’s a big (easy) win. This can be coupled with exercise, which also improves sleep quality (for both younger and older people).
Rhonda was previously using a low dose melatonin supplement (300 mcg by Life Extension), based on this research by MIT.
She has since switched to taking a high dose (10 – 12 mg), which she says helps keep her night terrors at bay.
She mentioned this specifically on Joe Rogan podcast #1474, and then more recently in her July 2022 Q&A.
The specific figure of around 10 mg likely comes from a string of research papers on sleep disruption, where ~9mg was the dose used.
Rhonda mentioned in her Feb 2021 Q&A she takes melatonin by Pure Encapsulations – possibly Pure Encapsulations – Melatonin 3mg.
Rhonda’s Dosage: 10 – 12 mg / nightly
Supplements Rhonda Uses Intermittently
So far we’ve covered supplements that Rhonda has said she takes on a daily basis. In this next section we’ll cover supplements Rhonda takes intermittently.
PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone)
PQQ is a compound found in plants that has been found to decrease inflammation and improve mitochondrial efficacy in humans.32Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects – Harris et al (2013). That said, it’s still relatively under studied compared to other supplements.
In a paper published in 2016, Japanese researchers found that PQQ improves cognitive function (measured using the stroop test), by increasing blood flow and oxygen metabolism to the right prefrontal cortex33Effect of the Antioxidant Supplement Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt (BioPQQ) on Cognitive Functions – Itoh et al (2016).
Rhonda mentioned in her February 2023 Q&A that she’s continuing to take Life Extension- PQQ 20mg capsules. She didn’t mention the frequency, whether it’s daily or every few days.
The Life Extension version comes in the disodium salt form that was used in the above study.
Rhonda’s Dosage: 1 capsule
Rhonda continues to take a curcumin phytosome supplement, sometimes known as Meriva, for its anti-inflammatory effects. Noting it also doubles as a (weak) alternative to painkillers.
She was previously taking the Thorne Meriva version – but later (February 2021) mentioned taking the Pure Encapsulations – CurcumaSorb.
Related to curcumin, Rhonda discussed the herb it’s derived from, Turmeric, in an Instagram post (link). She expressed her concern at lead chromate being added to turmeric during processing to enhance the yellow color.
Note: the easiest way to find this comment thread on her Instagram is to open the post via the Instagram mobile app – where this is the top comment. If instead you view via a web browser, then the comment isn’t at the top, and it may be hard to locate.
For more info on turmeric and lead chromate, see these studies:
- Ground Turmeric as a Source of Lead Exposure in the United States – link
- Lead chromate pigments added to turmeric threaten public health across Bangladesh – link
Rhonda continues to utilize turmeric in its organic form (which doesn’t have lead chromate added) – both as juices and in smoothies. It has a host of potential benefits, including:
- A randomized controlled trial showed that a bioavailable form of curcumin improved memory in older people with mild memory complaints. The curcumin group had a 28% improvement in their memory/attention abilities and fewer amyloid plaques and tau tangles in the brain, compared to the placebo. The latter (amyloid plaques and tau tangles) affect optimal brain function, and are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease.
- Additionally a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial showed antidepressive effects in patients with major depression34Add-on Treatment with Curcumin Has Antidepressive Effects in Thai Patients with Major Depression: Results of a Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study – Kanchanatawan et al. (2018).
The bioavailability of curcumin can be increased with the addition of fat and a component of black pepper called piperine. For fat sources, Rhonda adds avocado to her smoothies that have turmeric (see her Instagram post on this).
Choline is an essential micronutrient that plays crucial roles in:
- Preserving cell membrane structure
- Produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, important for memory, mood, muscle control, and other brain and nervous system functions
- Important roles in modulating gene expression, cell membrane signaling, lipid transport and metabolism, and early brain development
Rhonda aims to get the majority of choline from her diet. Eggs are particularly potent source, and so she typically has a breakfast that includes eggs. Other good sources are meat, fish, potatoes and wheat germ.
When asked in members Q&A #36 which choline supplement she likes, she specifically named Pure Encapsulations – Phosphatidylcholine. It contains 550mg of choline per 2 capsule serving. For context, the RDA for adult women is 425 mg/day.
Rhonda is keenly aware of the importance of a healthy gut microbiome, and probiotics play a role in that.
At one stage she was taking Visbiome probiotics every few weeks, to top up her healthy gut bacteria.
However, now Rhonda only takes Visbiome after drinking alcohol. Saying that if she had to take antibiotics for some reason, then she would take Visbiome probiotics after, in order to replenish the healthy gut bacteria.
For example, probiotics can help regulate the innate and adaptive immune responses by modulating the functions of dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes35Mechanisms of probiotic action: Implications for therapeutic applications in inflammatory bowel diseases – Vanderpool et al. (2008)36Probiotics: progress toward novel therapies for intestinal diseases – Yan et al. (2010).
Visbiome comes in sachet and pill form. Rhonda opts for the sachets which contain 4x as many live bacteria.
Before switching over to Visbiome, Rhonda was taking VSL #3 probiotic, which had been the subject of over 25 publishes studies, showing efficacy in IBS, IBD, colitis and c. diff. However, it turns out the new formulation of VSL #3 differs significantly from the old one37P884 No shared mechanisms among “old” and “new” VSL#3: Implications for claims and guidelines – C De Simone (2018), and thus should be treated with caution at minimum, and at maximum, avoided. I mention this section because for some people Visbiome is hard to get hold of, and up until now, it was thought VSL #3 was a satisfactory alternative. Below summarizes the details:
VSL #3 was originally created by Professor Claudio De Simone, and produced by VSL Inc. All the clinical studies before 2016 were performed on the “original formula” of VSL#3. However, when Di Simone parted ways with VSL Inc. in 2016, manufacturing was switched from USA to Italy and the formulation was changed. Between 2016 and 2019, VSL Inc. claimed that the beneficial effects of the formula remained the same. However in a federal lawsuit that concluded in 2019, VSL Inc. were found liable for false advertising related to the composition and clinical history of the new VSL #3 formula. This was in part backed up by a study38P884 No shared mechanisms among “old” and “new” VSL#3: Implications for claims and guidelines – C De Simone (2018) performed by De Simone, showing that the new VSL#3 formula was materially different to the old one.
For those looking for the benefits of the original VSL# 3 formula, this continues to exist under the Visbiome brand.
Dosage: 1 sachet/every 1-2 weeks
Rhonda currently gets her omega-3 phospholipids from wild salmon roe caviar. She bulk buys her caviar from Vital Choice, who offer it in 2.2lbs packages that can be frozen, and then defrosted one quarter at a time. Consuming this in addition to her regular omega-3 supplementation.
She opts for the salmon roe rather than supplements, as it’s a potent, fresh source of phospholipids (~438 mg of EPA and ~514 mg of DHA per ounce). Prior to this she was taking a herring roe extract made by Nordic Naturals, and before that, Krill oil. See this and this Instagram post for more on Rhonda discussing salmon roe.
Omega-3 Phospholipids, Alzheimer’s & APOE4
Rhonda’s keen interest in omega-3 phospholipids stems from having 1 ApoE4 allele in her DNA.
ApoE4 increases Alzheimer’s risk between 2-3x if you’ve 1 allele and 15x with 2 allele’s. It’s estimated that around 25% of the population have at least 1 ApoE4 allele.
Part of the reason for the increase in Alzheimer’s risk with APOE4 is that it impairs regular DHA transport into the brain.
In 2018 Rhonda published an open access paper on a possible mechanism for getting DHA into the brain, which bypasses the impaired route.
^ Rhonda displaying her ApoE4 paper
Rhonda’s paper proposes that consuming DHA in phospholipid form gets around impaired DHA transport. The reason for this is that phospholipid DHA gets converted to DHA-lysoPC, by a specialized transporter called MFSD2A39Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid – Nguyen et al (2014). This transport system appears to continue to work even when regular DHA transport is impaired.
Providing DHA to the brain again, in the form of DHA-lysoPC, may reduce Alzheimer’s disease risk.
According to Rhonda, omega-3 phospholipids are found in fish, and in greatest concentration in fish roe (fish eggs).
You can test yourself for ApoE4 by using a test like 23andMe (their cheaper ancestry test is sufficient) – and then exporting the raw data they provide into Rhonda’s genetic report or to Promethease. 23andMe’s more expensive health package should include ApeE4 testing as standard.
In Rhonda’s June 2021 Q&A she mentions using collagen powder daily to benefit her skin, hair and joints. She consumes it by adding it to her smoothies, coffee and sometimes tea.
Her original interest was inspired by a study that showed peptides in collagen actually make it intact to cartilage, which suggests its beneficial for joint health (source).
Additionally, Rhonda’s interest was piqued by a study showing that in 26 healthy females who displayed visible signs of natural and photoaging in the face, daily supplementation with 1 gram of collagen powder for 12 weeks led to a 76% reduction of skin dryness/scaling and a 13% decrease in global lines and wrinkles. Additionally, an 18% increase in the content of haemoglobin was found in the skin dermis suggesting improved microcirculation (study source).
See Rhonda’s Instagram post on collagen for more info. In her June Q&A she mentions using both Great Lakes Collagen and Vital Proteins Collagen.
Nootropics are products aimed at improving cognitive function, and in Rhonda’s June 2021 members Q&A she updated us on her preferred nootropic, which she consumes in the form of a drink.
First though, she caveats by saying her foundations for maximizing cognitive function are:
- Good quality sleep – see this post for how she optimizes her sleep
- Regular cardio exercise – such as running/spin bike
- Intermittent fasting – such that she stays in ketosis throughout the morning while she works
- Consuming sulforaphane – which raises glutathione in the brain, lowering oxidative stress + inflammation
- High dose fish oil – of which the DHA is key for brain function
Now let’s look Rhonda’s nootropic drink. It contains:
- Lion’s Mane Mushroom – she preferences Laird’s Performance Mushrooms blend
- Cocoavia Cocoa powder – 1 sachet (link + 25% off coupon code)
- A 50/50 split between coconut powder and MCT powder
- Stevia – to make it taste nice
- Cinnamon powder
She says it’s like dynamite for the brain, and she feels “on fire” with it” 🔥
In the mornings she limits herself to just 1 coffee, to which she sometimes adds the Laird’s mushroom blend mentioned above. Then, if she wants an extra boost, she will make the nootropic drink. She adds a couple of important caveats:
- The cocoa powder naturally contains a small amount of caffeine, so she avoids drinking the mix too late in the day, as that can impact sleep quality.
- She avoids using a dairy creamer, because dairy contains a protein that can inhibit the flavonoids in the cocoa.
In terms of an estimate on dosage for the Lion’s Mane, Rhonda cites a study (source) that showed significant improvements in cognitive function after 8 weeks of 3g per day vs placebo – for 50-80 year olds with existing cognitive impairment.
Not Currently Taking
This section covers supplements that Rhonda has previously taken but isn’t currently. I could just strike them from the list, but I think for some this list (and the rationales) may be of interest.
Prior to having her son, Rhonda was experimenting with a Nicotinamide Riboside supplement by Thorne. However whilst pregnant, Rhonda stopped taking any non-essential supplements (including Nicotinamide Riboside) that could pose even the slightest risk to her child.
The nicotinamide riboside product she was taking before was called Thorne NiaCel (now discontinued) – which contained Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride made by Chromadex. Chromadex also produce Nicotinamide Riboside under their own brand; called Tru Niagen.
As of yet, Rhonda hasn’t come back to taking Nicotinamide Riboside, and has said she is waiting for more human research to be completed.
Rhonda has had David Sinclair on the podcast discussing the positive effects of Resveratrol. Since that podcast, Rhonda has posted a literary review of Resveratrol on her site.
In her Dec 2019 Q&A discussion, she discussed Resveratrol, saying that she doesn’t take it currently, but is considering taking it.
She says her interest in resveratrol stems mainly from preliminary clinical trials showing positive benefits in cognition for older and cognitively impaired adults, including:
- A study, 200mg/daily resveratrol supplementation improved healthy 50-75 year olds memory recall40Effects of Resveratrol on Memory Performance, Hippocampal Functional Connectivity, and Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Older Adults – Witte et al. (2014).
- In another study, patients with alzheimer’s disease who took resveratrol saw improvements in cognition, and decreases in biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease and inflammation41Resveratrol regulates neuro-inflammation and induces adaptive immunity in Alzheimer’s disease – Moussa et al. (2017).
Her current reservation is around a study that showed 250mg/day of resveratrol blunted the positive effects of exercise42Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men – Gliemann et al (2013). However, another study using 500mg showed synergistic effects in combination with exercise43Resveratrol Enhances Exercise-Induced Cellular and Functional Adaptations of Skeletal Muscle in Older Men and Women – Alway et al. (2017). Rhonda’s current hypothesis for why is that at lower doses resveratrol may act as a mild antioxidant, which then blunts the positive effects of exercise (similar to high dose Vitamin E).
When asked what type of resveratrol she would take, she said a micronized powder form, and that a company called RevGenetics make that (noting again that she has no connection with them or any other supplement company).
For more on David Sinclair and the supplements he takes, including Resveratrol and NMN, see this separate post.
Metformin has been studied in humans since the 1950’s, and is most commonly taken to battle type 2 diabetes. In recent years its become popular amongst biohackers looking to extend their healthspan + lifespan. As this novel, off-label use has become more popular, its invited further research into whether this approach makes sense.
In a podcast with Kevin Rose (Jan 2020 – link), Rhonda discussed the use of metformin for longevity.
She notes that exercise is better at preventing type 2 diabetes than metformin, citing a randomized controlled trial involving 3,200 people44Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin – Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (2002). She also questions the value of metformin in healthy individuals who exercise. This is because the health benefits of exercise are vast and well documented, and it appears that metformin inhibits a number of these. Namely:
- Reduction in gaining lean muscle mass whilst on an exercise program, compared to placebo45Metformin blunts muscle hypertrophy in response to progressive resistance exercise training in older adults: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, multicenter trial: The MASTERS trial – Walton et al (Sept 2019).
- Inhibition of mitochondrial adaptations and improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness by 50 percent and diminished whole-body insulin sensitivity after aerobic exercise46Metformin inhibits mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training in older adults – Konopka et al (2018).
So when it comes to healthy individuals who exercise, she doesn’t see any synergy with the use of metformin for improving healthspan and lifespan. However, for people who don’t exercise, then the use of metformin may warrant further inspection. See Rhonda’s research section on metformin for more info.
Note that if you’re interested in taking the prescription drug metformin for off-label use, you should consult with a doctor on the subject. The above does not constitute medical advice in any shape or form.
Rhonda doesn’t take Athletic Greens, and nor has she in the past. However, she was asked by a subscriber of hers what she thinks of it.
Her response in her May 2022 Q&A was that Athletic Greens contains a blue green micro algae called spirulina, which is a potential source of a liver toxin called microcistins.
See FDA warning and a paper on mycocystins in dietary supplements.
Therefore she suggested to the subscriber to contact Althetic Greens for their microcystin testing data.
To her knowledge the subscriber didn’t receive a reply containing data to allay this potential concern.
This ends the main list of supplements.
Below we’ll look at supplements Rhonda used during her pregnancy (a section which, of course, won’t be applicable to all).
You can instead skip to the next section – Rhonda’s Method for Choosing Supplement Brands.
Rhonda’s Pregnancy, Breastfeeding & Toddler Supplements
See this detailed post for the details on which supplements Rhonda took during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Then separately see this post on the supplements Rhonda gave to her growing toddler.
Rhonda’s Method for Choosing Supplement Brands
The supplement industry, surprisingly, is largely unregulated. Especially when compared to the stringent regulations that are imposed on the pharmaceutical industry. This amplifies the importance of choosing a supplement that you can rely upon. In a Tim Ferriss interview Rhonda recommended that you check if the supplement brand you’re looking to buy is certified by the NSF (National Sanitary Foundation). Their role is to independently test and certify supplements, to ensure they do not contain undeclared ingredients or contaminants.
As a guideline, below is the list of brands that Rhonda often uses (either currently, or in the past):
- Pure Encapsulations – see their NSF certification
- Thorne Research – see their NSF certification
- Life Extension – see their NSF certification
Then separately, Rhonda has discussed using Labdoor and Consumer Lab in order to check products for contaminants such as heavy metals.
If you’ve got any queries on the above, please leave them below in the comments.
If you value the research and content that Rhonda is putting out, consider signing up become a premium member on her site.
Firstly, this crowd sponsored support allows her to continue to work independently, without being reliant on sponsors or grants. Secondly, premium members get a number of exclusive benefits, including members only emails, monthly Ask Me Anything live streams and open access to use her genetics reports.
If you’re looking for further Rhonda Patrick related content, below are some related posts I’ve written:
- A detailed post on Rhonda’s diet – including examples of her breakfast, lunch and dinner (link)
- A post on Rhonda’s approach to exercise + examples of what she does (link)
- Notes on many of the key things Rhonda has discussed about pregnancy, breastfeeding & baby health – based on her journey into motherhood (link)
- Notes on the supplements Rhonda is giving to her, now, toddler (link)
Post Change Log
For those curious, see this post for a log of the main updates over time.
- 3Omega-3: A Link between Global Climate Change and Human Health – Jing X. Kang | 2011 | Biotechnology Advances
- 4Metabolism of α-linolenic acid in humans – G.C. Burdge | (see section 7.2 of paper) | 2006 | Journal: PLEFA
- 5Metabolism of α-linolenic acid in humans – G.C. Burdge | (see section 7.2 of paper) | 2006 | Journal: PLEFA
- 6Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement – Sarter et al. | 2014 | Clinical Nutrition
- 7Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement – Sarter et al. | 2014 | Clinical Nutrition
- 8Blood n-3 fatty acid levels and total and cause-specific mortality from 17 prospective studies – Harris et al. | 2021 | Nature Communications
- 9The Omega-3 Index: Clinical Utility for Therapeutic Intervention | William Harris | 2010 | Current Cardiology Reports
- 10Vitamin D: A Micronutrient Regulating Genes – Carsten Carlberg | 2019 | Current Pharmaceutical Design
- 12Circulating uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein, a marker of vitamin K status, as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease – van den Heuvel et al. (2014)
- 13The relationship between vitamin K and peripheral arterial disease – Vissers et al. (2016)
- 14Lutein and Zeaxanthin and Their Roles in Age-Related Macular Degeneration – Mrowicka et al. | 2022 | Nutrients
- 15Lutein and Zeaxanthin Supplementation and Association With Visual Function in Age-Related Macular Degeneration – Liu et al. | 2015 | Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
- 16Dietary guidance for lutein: consideration for intake recommendations is scientifically supported – Ranard et al. | 2017 | European Journal of Nutrition
- 17Zeaxanthin: Review of Toxicological Data and Acceptable Daily Intake – James Edwards | 2016 | Journal of Ophthalmology
- 18Increased Bioavailability of Ubiquinol Compared to Ubiquinone – Aoki et al. (2014)
- 20Dark chocolate supplementation reduces the oxygen cost of moderate intensity cycling – Patel et al. (2015)
- 25Cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and chocolate products in the US Market – Abt et al (2017)
- 27Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults – Brickman et al. (2014)
- 28Suboptimal magnesium status in the United States: are the health consequences underestimated? – Rosanoff et al. (2012)
- 29Luteolin: A Flavonoid that Has Multiple Cardio-Protective Effects and Its Molecular Mechanisms – Luo et al. | 2017 | Frontiers in Pharmacology
- 31Luteolin Promotes Cell Apoptosis by Inducing Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Zhang et al. | 2017 | Cellular Physiology & Biochemistry
- 35Mechanisms of probiotic action: Implications for therapeutic applications in inflammatory bowel diseases – Vanderpool et al. (2008)
- 36Probiotics: progress toward novel therapies for intestinal diseases – Yan et al. (2010)
- 39Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid – Nguyen et al (2014)
- 44Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin – Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (2002)
- 46Metformin inhibits mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training in older adults – Konopka et al (2018)